Sociopolitical ideology. Often contrasted with Atlanticism, contemporary Eurasianism or neo-Eurasianism is a revival of an earlier stream of thought that Russia should embrace its unique role as both a European and Asiatic country, free of the spiritual, intellectual, and cultural domination of Romano-Germanic civilization. Nikolay Danilevsky first defined Eurasia as a distinct geopolitical entity during the 19th century, beginning the Russian fascination with its predominance in the “new” world region. While older forms of Eurasianism argued for a grand cultural alliance of the Slavs and Turanians (Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples), neo-Eurasianists typically embrace the wider Muslim world, principally Iran and anti-Western Arab regimes (India and China are sometimes part of this political calculus as well). The ideology is strongly anti-Zionist, anti-Western, and anti-American, with overtones of anti-Semitism in certain quarters. Its proponents suggest that it is the only viable alternative to the paradigm of “techno-economic globalization” that currently dominates the world system and reinforces American hegemony.
   In its intellectual form, neo-Eurasianism is most closely associated with the works of geopolitician Aleksandr Dugin; in the realm of politics, former Foreign Minister and Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov presents the strongest advocate for adopting a pan-Asiatic orientation in opposition to integration with the West. Vladimir Putin’s conduct of foreign relations is recognized as having a strong Eurasianist bent, but treads carefully so as not to totally reject the influence of the West on Russia’s sociopolitical development. NeoEurasianism both shares aspects of and is seen as the replacement for the older ideology of pan-Slavism.
   See also Monroeski Doctrine; Near abroad; United States.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

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